Violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes varones en el mundo: una revisión integrativa


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Palabras clave

revisión de literatura
violencia sexual
agresión sexual
abuso de niños
masculino
revelación
impacto en la salud
salud mental
manejo psicológico

Cómo citar

Gómez-León, M., Moreno Rangel, Y., Cárdenas-Serrato, P., Vasquez Perez, H., & Wilches Gutiérrez, J. (2020). Violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes varones en el mundo: una revisión integrativa. Revista Colombiana De Enfermería, 19(2), e020. https://doi.org/10.18270/rce.v19i2.2862

Resumen

Objetivo: recopilar, resumir y analizar la producción científica actual sobre la violencia sexual infantil (VSI) en niños y adolescentes varones en el mundo entre el 2014 y el 2019. Método: se realizó una revisión integrativa de literatura mediante una búsqueda sistemática de estudios publicados entre el 2014 y el 2019 en PubMed, LILACS e IBECS. Resultados: se identificaron 990 referencias, de las cuales se seleccionaron 31 artículos para la revisión. La mayoría se realizaron en EE. UU. (n = 18) y otros países desarrollados; solo cinco provienen de países en desarrollo (Brasil, China, India, Jamaica y Suráfrica). Dieciocho estudios usaron metodologías cuantitativas; quince, de tipo transversal. Dos trabajos abordaron menores de 16 años como su población objetivo. Respecto a los objetivos y hallazgos principales, se identificaron cuatro temas recurrentes: caracterización de la VSI, efectos en salud de la VSI (salud mental, salud sexual, comportamientos de riesgo y violencia), revelación de la VSI y análisis de intervenciones terapéuticas. Entre los hallazgos más sobresalientes se refirió que la divulgación del evento constituye un factor protector en el fortalecimiento de la resiliencia frente al abuso. Conclusiones: la VSI genera un impacto negativo en diferentes dimensiones de la salud de la víctima, que trascienden a lo largo de su vida y se profundizan en la medida en que se prolonga el momento de la revelación de los hechos. Más investigaciones son necesarias, principalmente en regiones y países en vías de desarrollo.

https://doi.org/10.18270/rce.v19i2.2862
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Referencias

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