Violencia de la pareja íntima contra las mujeres en el embarazo: una lectura crítica con perspectiva de género

María Mercedes Lafaurie V.

Resumen


Este artículo presenta una revisión crítica, basada en la perspectiva de género, en la que se identificaron y seleccionaron estudios sobre violencia de la pareja íntima en el embarazo. Se analizaron 72 artículos provenientes de 23 países, publicados entre 1994 y 2013. La violencia de la pareja íntima durante el embarazo se asocia con complicaciones obstétricas y del parto, tiene consecuencias sobre la salud mental y efectos en el recién nacido como bajo peso al nacer. Los países con puntajes más bajos de desarrollo humano muestran tasas más altas de estas implicaciones. Se ven asociadas condiciones sociodemográficas como el nivel educativo, el estatus social, la edad y el estado civil. Si bien en la mayoría de los países, en el embarazo se reduce la violencia de pareja, hay excepciones que sugieren que no es necesariamente un factor protector. La importancia dada a la maternidad y el embarazo en diferentes grupos sociales y el nivel de presencia de relaciones patriarcales pueden ofrecer una explicación a este fenómeno. La violencia psicológica es la más frecuentemente reportada. La investigación en este campo debe fortalecer el enfoque cualitativo. Los contextos en que se incrementa la violencia de pareja y donde prevalece la violencia física durante el embarazo requieren ser estudiados. Es imprescindible capacitar a los proveedores de salud para detectar y prevenir la violencia de pareja. Es necesario tener en cuenta la autonomía de la mujer como un eje central en la salud sexual y reproductiva.

Palabras clave


Key words: violencia doméstica; embarazo; salud sexual y reproductiva.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18270/rce.v10i10.581

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