Revisión de la literatura: actualización en radiculopatía cervical

Andrés Mauricio Álvarez Pinzón, Michael Krill

Resumen


La radiculopatía cervical es una disfunción de una raíz nerviosa de la columna cervical. La séptima raíz (C7) se compromete en un 60% de los casos y la sexta (C6) en un 25%. A menudo, las raíces nerviosas cervicales son las más afectadas en nuestro medio. Aproximadamente el 10% de la población adulta ha tenido dolor en el cuello en algún momento de su vida. Esta prevalencia es similar al dolor lumbar, pero muy pocos pacientes con dolor cervical se incapacitan y menos del 1% desarrolla déficit neurológico. Los trastornos clínicos que afectan la columna cervical pueden ser categorizados como la causa principal del dolor en el cuello. Estos trastornos son los que con mayor frecuencia causan dolor en las extremidades o disfunción neurológica. Las patologías que involucran dolor en el cuello son: esguince cervical, síndrome de compresión interna de disco o dolor discogénico, dolor cervical de tipo latigazo de origen neuropático y dolor miofascial. Los trastornos que de manera predominante causan síntomas en las extremidades o con disfunción neurológica incluyen la radiculopatía cervical y mielopatía cervical espondilótica. Los factores asociados con mayor riesgo son el trabajo manual pesado que requiere el levantamiento de más de 25 libras, el tabaquismo y conducir o utilizar equipo vibratorio. Otras causas menos frecuentes son los tumores de la columna vertebral, una ampliación de quiste sinovial, condromatosis sinovial, arteritis y las infecciones de la columna vertebral.En este artículo se estudian los conceptos contemporáneos del tratamiento de la radiculopatía cervical mediante la evaluación de los hallazgos de la actualización en literatura clínica hasta mayo de 2012. Dichos hallazgos abarcan desde los desórdenes degenerativos hasta los análisis en el departamento de cirugía de columna, pasando por un estudio clínico en medicina general. Busca facilitar una óptima evaluación diagnóstica y determinar el mejor tratamiento clínico y quirúrgico para una recuperación funcional de mayor facilidad.


Palabras clave


Vértebras cervicales; Desplazamiento del disco intervertebral-complicaciones; Dolor de cuello-etiología; Radiculopatía-diagnóstico

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18270/rce.v8i8.553

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